The foot bunions are small, bony projections on the foot particularly at the joint by the base of your toes. This particular condition happens when the big toe is brushing on other toes and it forces that to go an opposite direction that veers away from the normal position of the foot. This abnormal position can enlarge the toe joint and the crowding can result to pain and then bony projections. T read more It can also be very painful. Women tend to complain more about bunions than men because of the shoe types they wear. Bunions are quite common, it is medically known as Hallux Valgus. There is disagreement among medical professionals about the cause of bunions; some see them as primarily caused by the long-term use of shoes, particularly tight-fitting shoes with pointed toes, 1 while others believe that the problem stems from genetic factors that are exacerbated by shoe use. Bunions occur when pressure is applied to the side of the big toe ( hallux ) forcing it inwards towards, and sometimes under or over, the other toes (angulation). As pressure is applied, the tissues surrounding the joint may become swollen and tender. 3. Fungal nail infections are an infection underneath the surface of the nail, which can also penetrate the nail. A group of fungi attack the nail, thriving off the nail's protein and can eventually turn the nail yellowish-brown or darker in color. Debris may collect beneath the nail plate and white marks often appear on the nail plate. If the bunion rubs on the inside of your shoe, wearing shoes may be uncomfortable. If your foot becomes very wide, it may be difficult to find shoes that fit at all. Where possible, non-surgical treatment for bunions will be used. Dr. B C Shah can discuss the possible treatment options with you. 1.) Know when to shop for high heels-during the course of the day, the foot might slightly swell due to activity, so purchase high heels, or any shoe for that matter, later in the day so that whatever swelling is already present, you’ve got a better chance for a good fit. Wear heels around the house to help gradually get used to them and break them in. Stretchable materials with some give like leathers and suede’s can be more forgiving than other materials, allowing more comfort and less constriction which can result in less abuse to bones and tendons. The podiatrist will first need to know the reason of the foot injury by determining the condition of the injury. Possible treatments are muscle/joint testing, ultrasound/MRI/X-ray etc. Another important treatment of foot muscle injuries is orthotics. Depending on the wound, the doctors may prescribe different orthotics, dry needling, shoe modification, gait re-training etc. Infections caused by fungi can have many causes. Sometimes, these are caused by a lack of hygiene and badly sized footwear, in which the foot is in a very confined space and their is a lack of adequate ventilation, which leads to a buildup of moisture from normal perspiration. Fungi thrive in moist environments. A bunion is a foot condition that most people may not be familiar with, unless they happen to suffer from one. A bunion is a bump that forms on the toe joint - usually the big toe joint, which is technically known as the first metatarsophalangeal joint A bunion often causes a characteristic red, swollen bump on the top or side of the joint and results in a widening of the forefoot (toe area). These changes not only cause pain, but they make shoe wear difficult due to the widened forefoot and can create cosmetic concerns.